This book begins with metamaterials technology, a novel approach for the design of radiofrequency and microwave components and circuits. Since reliability is a key success factor to engineering products today, the different misconceptions in the common reliability practices of integrated circuits manufacturers are presented. A bio-inspired approach designed to solve some tasks raised in the ‘Bionic Eyeglass Project’ is described, which aims to help the everyday life of visually impaired people. This book also discusses the intrinsic charge transport in organic field-effect transistors based on self-assembled monolayers and on the nature of transport in organic systems. A combined view of spectroscopic studies on electronic states in working organic thin film is presented based on experimental results. Solution-processed organic thin-film transistors are also introduced. The use of photodiode array detectors as a powerful tool in HLPC is examined with an emphasis in peak identification and confirmatory results. The mechanisms of avalanche photodiodes as a particle detector and its latest results are reviewed. The main characteristics and properties of photodiodes and their applications in textile industry and biomedicine are also discussed. Finally, the specific application of photodiodes in cardiac optical mapping is presented.